As technology is evolving with every new day, we have seen drastic changes in the art of farming as well. Where traditional methods were thought to be sufficient for crop production, now they have little application and appeal towards consumers as the demand for off-season yields has seen a drastic increase. To answer all these questions and many more we found a common solution and that is a Polyhouse. Polyhouse has evolved the way of traditional farming in countries like India and Bangladesh and presented with new opportunities to get better and more yield while utilizing fewer resources.
Today in this article we will discuss Polyhouse, its basic introduction, and types, etc. We will also address any possible questions that you might have in mind regarding Polyhouse farming. We will be covering more topics on our blog regarding Polyhouse subsidies in India, Rajasthan subsidiary schemes, Poly house profit, and risk comparisons, and any other topic at our readers’ request. If you are a farmer and looking for a possible investment to yield more profit, polyhouse farming will be the best option for you to invest. This is the prime time as it is still a relatively new trend and in Country like India, there’s low competition with high scope.
This article will be your guide on all your basic questions about polyhouse. So, let’s start with the very basic concepts.
Table of Contents
What is a Polyhouse
A polyhouse is a type of specialized structure that utilizes the controlled climate condition for the growth of different plants and other farming needs. We use polythene sheets to cover the structure and separate the internal environment from that of the outside. Polyhouse farming as like protected cultivation.
The size of a polyhouse can range from a small-sized barn to that of very large buildings. It depends on your needs and the resources you have available for the construction of the polyhouse. know days in the India maximum Client is use 4000 square meter poly house farming. poly house structure starting size is 1008 square meter to 10000 square meter.
- 28 x 36 = 1008 Square Meter
- 36 x 56 = 2016 Square Meter
- 36 x 86 = 3096 Square Meter
- 44 x 92 = 4048 Square Meter
Polyhouse used to utilize wooden frames to support the main structure. The modern-day polyhouses use many strengthened materials like G.I steel or aluminum rods to provide extra support and more strength. These materials make it possible for a polyhouse to stand in harsh weather conditions, even with a small size. These new polyhouses are most suitable for the harsh climate zones of India like Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan.
The internal skeleton is then covered with polythene sheets to make sure that the internal heat and other climatic conditions can be altered and maintained without any external influence.
List of Poly house Material – https://www.shrijigreen.com/blog/poly-house-subsidy-material-crop-cost-structure/
Download – Agriculture Poly House Material List
Greenhouse Vs Polyhouse
One of the questions that we get quite often is that what is the difference between a greenhouse and a polyhouse. Today we will make this clear and put this confusion to rest. A polyhouse is essentially a greenhouse. It can also be regarded as a type of greenhouse.
Traditionally the greenhouses were made with green-colored sheets to act as a roof. Then with advancement, we were introduced to more reliable plastic sources such as polythene. The success of this new polythene in a greenhouse as well as its low cost made it a material of choice. That is how this type of greenhouse got a new name, i.e., polyhouse.
Types of Polyhouse
With the current advancement, the business of polyhouse has taken some amazing shifts. There are dozens of different types of polyhouses based on the type of material used, their site, the yield taken from them, and so on. Mainly the polyhouse can be divided into two types. Here as this is a basic introduction to help you develop an understanding of polyhouse and develop some concepts on how it works, we will discuss the main two types.
Naturally ventilated Polyhouse
This is the most basic and traditional type of polyhouse. In this type, there is very minimal control of climatic change. Your plants and crops are mainly at the mercy of the climatic conditions prevailing outside. Although there are a few helping aids like fogger, drip irrigation system, ventilation control, and pest control system, they are still not enough to yield off-season crops.
Environmental controlled Polyhouse
They are the more sophisticated types of polyhouses. Fitted with some of the very useful added features including but not limited to, sunlight control, humidity, temperature, etc. These polyhouses prolong the crop period and you can also get some of the most exotic off-season varieties from them. Such polyhouses are also used in areas to produce crops that are otherwise uncultivatable in those regions.
What you can grow in a Polyhouse
These polyhouses are now used to cultivate almost anything under a synthetic roof. From off-season varieties of fruits to most exotic flowers, these polyhouses can yield any type of crop.
Mostly following varieties are obtained by utilizing these polyhouses
Strawberries, Raspberries, Citrus Fruit, Watermelon, Peach, Papaya, etc.
Ginger and Turmeric are the most successful.
Roses, Gerbera, Anthurium, Strelitzia, Carnations, Orchids, Chrysanthemum, Gladiolus, Marigold, etc.
Cabbage, Capsicum, Cauliflower, Chili, Tomatoes, Coriander, Onion, Bitter Gourd, Radish, Okra, etc.
Ornamental indoor plants, Cacti, Colorful exotic plants, Miniature species, etc.
Advantages of Polyhouse Farming
Polyhouse farming is becoming the new norm of irrigation. It solved the biggest problems related to farming including those of desert farming as well as low water supply solutions.
Here are some of the most prominent advantages of polyhouse farming
- You can grow off-season crops. Such crops can yield higher profits as they are in increased demand with little supply.
- You can enjoy a whole year yield of crops without having to wait for the season’s rotations.
- As you are controlling the factors like humidity, temperature, and sunlight, etc. There are very few chances of crop damage and loss.
- A drip irrigation system provides an effective solution for the scarcity of water supply. It is also more beneficial for crop growth.
Subsidiary and Cost Advantages
- In regions like Rajasthan, you can even avail subsidies for polyhouse farming. Here’s a link for more details on the subsidies available and form for the Rajasthan region,
- You can acquire a much greater yield by utilizing less space. As an estimate there can be an increase of 7-13% for different crops.
- Polyhouses need very little manual work which decreases the manpower require per crop, this can also help you cut down on expenses.
- Central Government will be provide Across India 50% Subsidy. Here’s a link for more details on the subsidies available and from for the India region,
- Commercial Horticulture Development in protected cover on project mode.
- National Horticulture Board Provide a subsidy
Quality and Quantity Advantages
- There is more control over pests and insects are your crops are less prone to lose due to them.
- The quality of the crop is relatively much higher.
- External environmental factors have little or no effect on the crops. Crops have a more favorable environment available for growth which eventually translates into higher profits.
- Fertilizer application becomes much easier, you can even use automated systems to makes sure each plant is getting a definite amount of fertilizer for optimum growth.
- Reduced cropping period helps farmers to get 2 or 3 corps per year.
- Polyhouse can have more efficient drainage and aeration mechanisms.
- More production of CO2 in a polyhouse is useful for plant growth.
If invested properly and managed well, these polyhouses can become your next big earning markets. They provide a convenient and more controlled way of farming so consequently; they have relatively low risk as compared to traditional farming. The need is to focus on training farmers to changes their traditional ways which will not only help them yield higher profits but will also boost up our economy. If utilized properly, polyhouse farming can get us enough yield to boost our agricultural exports.
This was all on the basic introduction of polyhouse farming. We will add more detailed articles on the advantages, disadvantages, and Do’s and Don’ts of polyhouse farming very soon. If you have any other questions regarding polyhouse farming or this article, feel free to let us know. You can even leave your quarries in the comment section below and we will be glad to help you out. Till then, peace.
Types of Polyhouse Structures and Their Features
- Features: Traditional polyhouses are simple structures made of a metal or wooden frame covered with polyethylene film.
- Benefits: They are cost-effective, easy to construct, and provide protection from weather elements.
Quonset/Gothic Arch Polyhouses:
- Features: Quonset or gothic arch polyhouses have a curved roof, allowing better snow shedding and wind resistance.
- Benefits: They provide increased headroom and better air circulation, making them suitable for taller crops.
- Features: A-frame polyhouses have a steep sloping roof that maximizes light penetration and reduces snow accumulation.
- Benefits: They provide excellent drainage and are suitable for regions with heavy rainfall or snowfall.
- Features: Sawtooth polyhouses have a series of interconnected ridges and valleys, resembling a sawtooth pattern.
- Benefits: They allow for better air circulation, natural ventilation, and shading options, promoting optimal crop growth.
Ridge and Furrow Polyhouses:
- Features: Ridge and furrow polyhouses consist of a series of connected arches with raised planting beds along the ridges.
- Benefits: They facilitate efficient use of space, water, and nutrients, allowing better drainage and root aeration.
- Features: Multi-span polyhouses consist of several connected polyhouse units forming a larger structure.
- Benefits: They offer scalability, flexibility, and the ability to compartmentalize crops based on their growth requirements.
- Features: High-tunnel polyhouses are low-cost structures with a rounded or hoop-shaped frame covered with polyethylene.
- Benefits: They are easy to construct, manage, and are suitable for small-scale or seasonal crop production.
- Features: Multi-level polyhouses utilize vertical space with stacked or tiered growing systems.
- Benefits: They optimize land use and can increase crop yield per unit area, making them ideal for urban farming or limited land availability.
These various types of polyhouse structures offer different features and benefits, allowing farmers to select the most suitable design based on their specific needs, crop requirements, and environmental conditions.
Climate Control and Environmental Management in Polyhouses
Climate control and environmental management are crucial aspects of polyhouse farming to create optimal growing conditions for crops. Here are some key considerations and techniques:
- Ventilation: Adequate ventilation helps regulate temperature and prevent heat buildup. Natural ventilation through vents, doors, or windows, as well as mechanical ventilation systems, can be employed.
- Heating: During colder periods, heating systems such as heaters or geothermal heating can maintain the desired temperature.
- Cooling: Cooling techniques like evaporative cooling, misting systems, or shading nets can help lower temperatures during hot periods.
- Humidifiers: In arid regions or during dry seasons, humidifiers can add moisture to the air to maintain optimal humidity levels.
- Dehumidifiers: In humid climates or during periods of excess moisture, dehumidifiers can help reduce humidity levels to prevent fungal diseases.
- Natural Light: Polyhouse design should maximize natural light exposure by orienting the structure and incorporating appropriate glazing materials to allow light transmission.
- Supplemental Lighting: Artificial lighting, such as high-pressure sodium (HPS) or light-emitting diodes (LEDs), can be used to supplement natural light, extend photoperiods, or provide specific light spectra for plant growth.
Irrigation and Water Management:
- Irrigation Systems: Drip irrigation, micro-sprinklers, or fogging systems can efficiently deliver water to plants while minimizing waste.
- Water Quality: Monitoring and maintaining proper water quality, including pH and nutrient levels, is essential for plant health and growth.
- Recycling Systems: Implementing water recycling and collection systems can reduce water consumption and improve sustainability.
- Hydroponics: Implementing hydroponic systems allows precise control of nutrient delivery to plants, optimizing growth and reducing resource use.
- Fertigation: Fertilizers can be injected into irrigation systems (fertigation) to provide nutrients directly to plant roots in a controlled manner.
- Monitoring: Regular monitoring of nutrient levels in the growing medium or nutrient solution ensures balanced nutrition and prevents deficiencies or excesses.
Pest and Disease Management:
- Integrated Pest Management (IPM): Employing IPM strategies, including biological controls, beneficial insects, traps, and cultural practices, helps minimize pest and disease issues.
- Monitoring Systems: Installing monitoring systems such as sensors, cameras, or automated pest detection tools can aid in early pest or disease identification.
Automation and Control Systems:
- Environmental Sensors: Sensors for temperature, humidity, CO2 levels, and light intensity can provide real-time data for automated control of climate conditions.
- Automated Systems: Automated systems can adjust temperature, humidity, lighting, irrigation, and nutrient delivery based on preset parameters, optimizing environmental conditions.
Proper climate control and environmental management in polyhouses create a controlled and favorable environment for crop growth, maximizing productivity, and ensuring the overall success of high-tech agriculture.
Automation and robotics in polyhouse farming
Automation and robotics play a significant role in enhancing efficiency, precision, and productivity in polyhouse farming. Here are some key areas where automation and robotics are utilized:
Planting and Seeding:
- Robotic Seeders: Automated seeders can accurately and uniformly plant seeds at predetermined intervals, reducing labor requirements and ensuring precise seed placement.
Crop Monitoring and Data Collection:
- Sensor Networks: Deploying sensor networks within polyhouses enables real-time monitoring of environmental parameters such as temperature, humidity, light levels, and soil moisture.
- Imaging Technologies: Robotic systems equipped with cameras or drones capture images of crops, enabling farmers to assess plant health, growth patterns, and detect anomalies.
- Data Analytics: Automated data analysis algorithms help process the collected data, providing valuable insights for decision-making and optimizing crop management strategies.
Irrigation and Nutrient Management:
- Automated Irrigation Systems: Sensor-based systems can monitor soil moisture levels and automatically trigger irrigation based on crop requirements, ensuring optimal water usage.
- Fertigation Systems: Automated systems deliver precise amounts of fertilizers and nutrients to plants through the irrigation system, enabling efficient and targeted nutrient management.
Weeding and Crop Maintenance:
- Robotic Weeders: Robots equipped with computer vision systems and mechanical tools can identify and remove weeds selectively, reducing the need for manual labor and chemical herbicides.
- Robotic Pruners: Automated pruning systems equipped with imaging technology can identify and selectively prune plants based on growth patterns, promoting healthy and uniform crop growth.
Harvesting and Sorting:
- Robotic Harvesters: Robots with specialized grippers and computer vision capabilities can autonomously harvest mature crops, minimizing labor-intensive harvesting processes.
- Sorting and Grading Systems: Automated systems can sort and grade harvested produce based on size, color, and quality, ensuring uniformity and improving efficiency in packaging and distribution.
Logistics and Transport:
- Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs): AGVs can transport harvested produce within the polyhouse or to designated processing or packaging areas, reducing manual labor and improving workflow efficiency.
AI-based Decision Support Systems:
- AI Algorithms: Artificial intelligence algorithms can analyze data from various sources, including environmental sensors and imaging systems, to provide recommendations on crop management practices, resource allocation, and pest/disease detection.
The integration of automation and robotics in polyhouse farming reduces labor requirements, improves precision in various tasks, optimizes resource utilization, and enhances overall productivity. These technologies enable farmers to streamline operations, make data-driven decisions, and achieve higher yields with improved crop quality.
Economic analysis and profitability of polyhouse farming
Economic analysis and profitability are essential considerations for polyhouse farming. Here are key aspects to assess the financial viability and potential profitability of polyhouse operations:
- Initial Investment: Calculate the initial capital required for constructing the polyhouse structure, purchasing equipment, installing automation systems, and acquiring inputs such as seeds, fertilizers, and irrigation systems.
- Operational Costs: Identify and estimate ongoing expenses such as labor, energy costs for heating, cooling, and lighting, water usage, maintenance and repairs, pest and disease management, and administrative overhead.
- Crop Selection and Yield: Research and analyze market demand and prices for different crops to determine the most profitable options. Consider crop growth cycles, yields, and expected production quantities per unit area.
- Market Analysis: Study local and regional market trends, consumer preferences, and potential buyers or market channels. Assess competition, pricing dynamics, and market demand fluctuations to ensure a stable and profitable market for your produce.
- Revenue Generation: Estimate potential revenue based on projected crop yields, anticipated market prices, and sales volumes. Consider direct sales to consumers, wholesale distribution, contracts with retailers, or potential export opportunities.
- Profit Margin Calculation: Calculate the difference between total revenue and total costs to determine the profit margin. Assess the breakeven point, where revenue covers all costs, and analyze the potential for generating profit beyond breakeven.
- Risk Assessment: Identify and assess potential risks that could impact profitability, such as market price volatility, crop failure, pest outbreaks, extreme weather events, or changes in government regulations. Implement risk management strategies to mitigate these risks.
- Financial Analysis: Conduct financial analysis techniques such as net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), payback period, and return on investment (ROI) to evaluate the financial viability and profitability of the polyhouse farming venture.
- Sustainability and Grants: Explore sustainable farming practices and eco-certifications that can enhance the market value of your produce. Additionally, research government grants, subsidies, or financial assistance programs available for high-tech agriculture projects.
- Periodic Evaluation and Adjustment: Regularly monitor and evaluate the financial performance of your polyhouse farming operations. Make adjustments to production strategies, crop selection, pricing, or cost management based on market dynamics and performance indicators.
It is crucial to conduct a thorough economic analysis, consider market dynamics, and implement efficient management practices to maximize profitability in polyhouse farming. Consulting with agricultural economists, financial advisors, or industry experts can provide valuable insights for financial planning and decision-making.